• Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson (2005), "The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Economic Growth," American Economic Review http://econ-www.mit.edu/faculty/download_pdf.php?id=1181.
  • Robert Brenner (1977), "The Origins of Capitalist Development: A Critique of Neo-Smithian Marxism," New Left Review I/104http://www.newleftreview.net/?page=article&view=185.
  • Paul David and Peter Temin (1976), "Slavery: The Progressive Institution?" in Paul David et. al., Reckoning with Slavery, chapter 5.
  • Robert Fogel and Stan Engerman (1974), Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, chapters 1, 4, and 6.
  • David Galenson (1981), White Servitude in Colonial America, chapter 9.
  • Roger Ransom and Richard Sutch (1977), One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation, chapters 2, 3, and 9.
  • Barbara L. Solow (1987), "Capitalism and Slavery in the Exceedingly Long Run," in B.L. Solow and S.L. Engerman (eds.), British Capitalism and Caribbean Slavery: The Legacy of Eric Williams (Cambridge University Press), pp. 51-77.

Evsey Domar (1970), "The Causes of Slavery or Serfdom: A Hypothesis," Journal of Economic History, pp. 18-32 http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/movable_type/2003_archives/001447.html
  • Why slavery (or serfdom)?
  • Aristotle: we will always have slavery until we have looms that work of themselves.
  • Landlord upper class--needs workers, and no alternative land for the workers to go to.
  • Laborlord upper class--needs effective means of control.
  • What limits the rate of exploitation with laborlords?.
  • Trade and laborlords.
  • Adam Smith's bet: slavery inefficient. Why was his bet wrong?

Stanley Engerman and Kenneth Sokoloff (1994), "Factor Endowments, Institutions and Differential Paths of Development Among New World Economies: A View from Economic Historians of the United States" (Cambridge: NBER Working Paper no. h0066) http://papers.nber.org/papers/h0066.pdf
  • Haiti richest in world in 1776.
  • Haiti not richest in world today.
  • What went wrong in Haiti--and what went right in North America?
  • What is Sokoloff and Engerman's story?
  • Sokoloff and Engerman aren't doing economics, are they?

Claudia Goldin and Kenneth Sokoloff (1984), "The Relative Productivity Hypothesis of Industrialization: The American Case, 1820-1850," Quarterly Journal of Economics 99 (August), pp. 461-87 http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-5533%28198408%2999%3A3%3C461%3ATRPHOI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V
  • America rich in land, and scarce in labor.
  • America scarce in capital.
  • Why, then, did part of America--New England--industrialize?

O'Brien, Patrick (1982), "European Economic Development: the Contribution of the Periphery," Economic History Review, 1-18. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-0117%28198202%292%3A35%3A1%3C1%3AEEDTCO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W
  • How much did western Europe gain, 1500-1800, from trade?
  • How much did western Europe gain, 1500-1800, from pillage?
  • How much did western Europe gain, 1500-1800, from empire?