• Stephen Nicholas and Richard Steckel (1991), "Heights and Living Standards of English Workers During the Early Years of Industrialization, 1770-1815," Journal of Economic History 51:4 (December), pp. 937-57.
  • Joel Mokyr (1988), "Is There Still Life in the Pessimist Case? Consumption during the Industrial Revolution, 1790-1850," Journal of Economic History 48:1 (March), pp. 69-92.
  • George Boyer (1998), "The Historical Background of the Communist Manifesto," Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:4 (Autumn), pp. 151-174.
  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848), Manifesto of the Communist Party
  • Karl Marx (1849), Wage-Labor and Capital
  • Karl Marx (1867), The So-Called 'Primitive Accumulation'
  • David Landes (1986), "What Do Bosses Really Do?" Journal of Economic History 46:3 (September), pp. 585-623.
  • Gregory Clark (1994), "Factory Discipline," Journal of Economic History 54:1. (March), pp. 128-163.
  • Karl Marx (18??), Critique of the Gotha Programme
  • Charles Babbage
  • Andrew Ure

The Five Karl Marxes:

Communist revolution is necessary and inevitable because...
  • The Technology Marx: is not a complement to but a substitute for labor, and so technological progress and capital accumulation that raise average labor productivity also lower the working-class wage. Hence the market system cannot and will be seen to be unable to deliver the good society we all deserve, and it will be overthrown.
  • The Market Extent Marx: ...businessmen continually extend the domain of captalism, and competition from poor workers in newly-incorporated peripheral regions puts a lid on the wages of labor. Hence inequality grows in the core, and triggers revolution.
  • The Unveiling Marx: ...previous systems of hierarchy and domination maintained control by hypnotizing the poor into believing that the rich in some sense "deserved" their high seats in the temple of civilization. Capitalism unveils all--replaces masked exploitation by naked exploitation--and without its ideological legitimation, unequal class society cannot survive.
  • The Ideology Marx: ...although the ruling class could appease the working class by sharing the fruits of economic growth, they will not. They are trapped by their own ideological legitimation--they really do believe that it is in some sense "unjust" for a factor of production to earn more than its marginal product. Hence social democracy will inevitably collapse before an ideologically-based right-wing assault, income inequality will rise, and the system will be overthrown.
  • The Solidarity Marx: ...factory work--lots of people living in cities living alongside each other working alongside each other develop a sense of their common interest and of class solidarity, hence they will be able to organize, and revolt.

Who is the real Marx? Ah, grasshopper, not until you have learned not to ask that question will you be able to snatch the pebble from my hand...

What relevance and use does a work like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848), "Manifesto of the Communist Party"
<> have to twenty-first century economists today?